Particularly during the Cenozoic, thick clastic wedges built out the continental shelf along the northwestern and northern margins of the Gulf of Mexico.
 It was 8,776 square miles (22,730 km2) in 2017, the largest ever recorded. Eleven people died in the explosion and an estimated 5,000 barrels of oil per day leaked into the Gulf of Mexico from the 18,000-foot (5,486 m) well on the platform. Instead they overwhelmingly accept plate tectonics, not an asteroid impact, as having created the Gulf of Mexico as illustrated by papers authored by Kevin Mickus and others. The remainder of the shelf consists of sand, silt, and clay sediments. The eastern part of the abyssal plain is dominated by the morphology of the late Quaternary Mississippi fan; the western abyssal plain is deeper and featureless. , In 2002 geologist Michael Stanton published a speculative essay suggesting an impact origin for the Gulf of Mexico at the close of the Permian, which could have caused the Permian–Triassic extinction event. Two syntheses stand out. The passengers aboard Robert E. Lee were primarily survivors of previous torpedo attacks by German U-boats. 1502x1159 / 953 Kb Go to Map. The contract gave him one year to gather an army, leave Spain, be large enough to found at least two towns of 100 people each, and garrison two more fortresses anywhere along the coast. One of the GOM’s most prominent features is the Mississippi deltaic plain on the northern GOM, created as sea-level rise slowed enough to 8000 BP to allow land building with a slowing sea-level rise (Turner, Kearney, & Parkinson 2018).  The Gulf of Mexico yields more finfish, shrimp, and shellfish annually than the south and mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and New England areas combined. The Gulf of Mexico is the ninth largest body of water in the world at a width of 810 nautical miles (1,500 km).
The wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico cover around 5 million acres (2.02 million hectares).
Hastings, D. and P.K.  Recently, resident Bryde's whales within the gulf were classified as an endemic, unique subspecies and making them as one of the most endangered whales in the world. Geologists and other Earth scientists agree in general that the present Gulf of Mexico basin originated in Late Triassic time as the result of rifting within Pangea. R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais, in World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (Second Edition), 2019. Values are latitudinal averages (solid lines) and standard deviation (shading).
18.1) is that of a bowl with about one-third being the deeper basin, one-third the sloping side, and the remainder a nearly flat continental rim < 200 m deep detailed with river channels, sediment depositions from the watershed, and within shelf movements. It is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Straits of Florida, running between the peninsula of Florida and the island of Cuba, and to the Caribbean Sea by the Yucatán Channel, which runs between the Yucatán Peninsula and Cuba.
Increasingly, the Gulf of Mexico is regarded as a back-arc basin behind the Jurassic Nazas Arc of Mexico. The CENTLA Biosphere Reserve was established to protect this important region.
On March 13, 2009, the CLCS accepted Mexico's arguments for extending its continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (650 km; 400 mi) into the Western Polygon.
Figure 3.2. The geology of the Gulf of Mexico has been reviewed by numerous authors. The GOM is a remarkable region to study gas hydrates. A connection to the Pacific Ocean opened as tectonic movements stretched the continental crust across central Mexico to create an opening into the Atlantic. This review will focus on the origin of the northern and northwestern portions of the Gulf of Mexico Basin (the Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin), and the history of its filling. Submarine mass movements along the flanks of intraslope basins have been related to mobilization of underlying salt masses in the Gulf of Mexico (Tripsanas et al., 2004).
The basin contains a volume of roughly 2,500 quadrillion liters (550 quadrillion Imperial gallons, 660 quadrillion US gallons, 2.5 million km3 or 600,000 cu mi). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections?
 The rifting was associated with zones of weakness within Pangea, including sutures where the Laurentia, South American, and African plates collided to create it. The official Atlantic Basin Hurricane Season runs from June 1st to November 30th. Earthquakes may be caused by interactions between sediment loading on the sea floor and adjustment by the crust..
Representative estimates of in-place hydrate gas made during the 23 years after initial hydrate discovery range from 67 to 680 tcm. All entities concentrate near current or past faults and flow conduits of hydrocarbon seeps. Indeed, within northern GOM estuaries, del-nitrate values are as large as +16.6‰ for δ15N–NO3, depending upon fertilizer sources in the upstream drainage basins (Coffin and Cifuentes, 1999; Chang et al., 2002). Hurricanes are common along the Gulf Coast, such as Katrina in 2005, Ike in 2008, Harvey in 2016, and Michael in 2018.6) The Gulf of Mexico features a wide continental shelf, specifically around Florida and the Yucatán Peninsula. Animation Loop; 250 x 250 px, (JPG, 66 KB) 500 x 500 px, (JPG, 220 KB) 1000 x 1000 px, (JPG, 686 KB) 2000 x 2000 px, (JPG, 2.18 MB) 4000 x 4000 px, (JPG, 6.13 MB) Animated GIF, (GIF, 33.51 MB) AirMass RGB.
Initially, the combination of crustal stretching and cooling caused about 5–7 km (3.1–4.3 mi) of tectonic subsidence of the central thin transitional and oceanic crust.
Eakins, 2009. , The Smithsonian Institution Gulf of Mexico holdings are expected to provide an important baseline of understanding for future scientific studies on the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Accordingly, with the presence of both dinocysts and dinsoterol within the Orca Basin core and the larger δ15N of suspended PON within today’s overlying water, it is probable that Alexandrium spp., now adapted to nutrient-rich habitats (Table 1), were also the prior dominant dinoflagellates of nutrient-rich regions of the GOM ∼7000 years ago, as well. miles (1.5 million sq km), and is measured 994 miles ( 1,600 km) west to east, and 559 miles ( 900 km) north to south. Thomas E. Ewing, William E. Galloway, in The Sedimentary Basins of the United States and Canada (Second Edition), 2019. SourcesFausset, Richard. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03windows/logs/aug01/media/diapirline.html, Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystem Modelling, Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, Jasper and Gargosian, 1990; Meckler et al., 2008, Coffin and Cifuentes, 1999; Chang et al., 2002, Smith et al., 1986; Ten Haven et al., 1987; Morris and Brassell, 1988. depth: 4375 m .
GLORIA interpretation map showing the distribution of salt and mass-transport deposits, composed of slides, slumps and debrites in the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, in 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed at Pensacola Bay and established a settlement.4) The Gulf of Mexico today is bordered by 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of U.S. coastline and is fed with water from 33 major rivers that flow out of the United States. An October 2007 study of the Atlantic croaker found a disproportioned sex ratio of 61% males to 39% females in hypoxic Gulf sites. The basin is unusually flat, having a gradient of only about 1 foot (0.3 metre) in every 8,000 feet (2,440 metres). Some global climate models suggest that this region will experience strong decreases in precipitation and this may become the most serious problem for this region.
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