martin luther king, jr biography


[41][42] While there, King took violin and piano lessons, and showed keen interest in his history and English classes. On April 15, 1967, King participated and spoke at an anti-war march from Manhattan's Central Park to the United Nations. Longevity has its place. After the second date, King was certain Scott possessed the qualities he sought in a wife.

Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and Walter Reuther, president of the United Automobile Workers, to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause. Though commonly attributed to King, this expression originated with 19th-century abolitionist, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKing1992 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFManheimer2004 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFManheimer2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFManhiemer2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGarrow1986 (, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) p 316–318. They went out for dates in his green Chevy. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co., 1963. [161], King delivered a 17-minute speech, later known as "I Have a Dream". The violence shook Martin and he decided to abandon the freedom rides before someone was killed, but the riders insisted they complete the ride to Montgomery, where they where greeted with more violence. [251] The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers. While in court to appeal the charges, he learned that the U.S. Supreme Court had affirmed the decision by the Alabama Supreme Court that the local laws requiring segregation on buses were unconstitutional.

Finally they would observe that we spend paltry sums for population planning, even though its spontaneous growth is an urgent threat to life on our planet.

President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than 100,000. World peace through nonviolent means is neither absurd nor unattainable. King's life had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States. Powell asked fellow student Coretta Scott if she was interested in meeting a Southern friend studying divinity. The group was inspired by the crusades of evangelist Billy Graham, who befriended King,[102] as well as the national organizing of the group In Friendship, founded by King allies Stanley Levison and Ella Baker.

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[299], Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people.

King underwent emergency surgery with three doctors: Aubre de Lambert Maynard, Emil Naclerio and John W. V. Cordice; he remained hospitalized for several weeks. Is the only U.S. citizen to have a national holiday dedicated to him. In response to Mrs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. [365], FBI director J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader.

Coretta hesitated about dating a minister but was persuaded when King said she had all the qualities he desired in a wife. [330][333][334][335] King also sometimes used the concept of "agape" (brotherly Christian love). [181] Several larger marches were planned and executed: in Bogan, Belmont Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (a suburb southwest of Chicago), Gage Park, Marquette Park, and others. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed. "[389] King's wife Coretta appeared to have accepted his affairs with equanimity, saying once that "all that other business just doesn't have a place in the very high level relationship we enjoyed.

After the march began, riots broke out; 60 people were injured and one person was killed, ending the march.

[136] From his cell, he composed the now-famous Letter from Birmingham Jail that responds to calls on the movement to pursue legal channels for social change. Martin Luther King Jr. E.D. But conscience asks the question, 'Is it right?'. Despite Coretta's warning that it would not be safe for them in Alabama, the poorest and most racist state in the US, Martin insisted that they move there. [369] The Bureau informed President John F. Kennedy.

Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks. In a 1965 Playboy interview, he stated that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida.
[63] As all the seats were occupied, he and his teacher were forced to stand on the rest of the drive back to Atlanta.

[268] However, Ray's fingerprints were found on various objects (a rifle, a pair of binoculars, articles of clothing, a newspaper) that were left in the bathroom where it was determined the gunfire came from.
In 1951, King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University.

'"[361] For his part, the series' creator, Gene Roddenberry, was deeply moved upon learning of King's support. In February 1958, the SCLC sponsored more than 20 mass meetings in key southern cities to register Black voters in the South. Adams, Russell, Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. In due time, Michael Jr. would follow his father's lead and adopt the name himself. “Martin Luther King, Jr.”, in Current Biography Yearbook 1965, ed.

Martin Luther King Jr. (Jan. 15, 1929–April 4, 1968) was the charismatic leader of the U.S. civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. He was uncertain about following in the footsteps of the family's clergymen, questioning religion's relevance in addressing segregation and poverty among his people. Never forget that everything Hitler did in Germany was legal. "[383], CIA files declassified in 2017 revealed that the agency was investigating possible links between King and Communism after a Washington Post article dated November 4, 1964 claimed he was invited to the Soviet Union and that Ralph Abernathy, as spokesman for King, refused to comment on the source of the invitation. [304], On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Martin Luther King Jr. among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal Studios fire.

James L. Bevel dies at 72; civil rights activist and top lieutenant to King", "Martin Luther King Jr. made our nation uncomfortable", "Martin Luther King Jr. as Democratic Socialist. [251][302], King is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America with an annual feast day on the anniversary of his death, April 4. There is this word we hear so often now, "Maladjusted".

FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and, in 1964, mailed King a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.[1]. The boycott lasted 382 days.

The assassination sparked riots and demonstrations in more than 100 cities across the country. New York, Harper & Row, 1968. The citation read: Martin Luther King Jr. was the conscience of his generation. [a][55][66][64][67], In the summer before King started his freshman year at Morehouse, he boarded a train with his friend – Emmett "Weasel" Proctor – and a group of other Morehouse College students to work in Simsbury, Connecticut at the tobacco farm of Cullman Brothers Tobacco (a cigar business). On August 28, 1963, the historic March on Washington drew more than 200,000 people in the shadow of the Lincoln Memorial.

I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian ministry.

It is exposing evils that are rooted deeply in the whole structure of our society.

Blacks turned from King's peaceful course to the radical concepts of Malcolm X.

The first civil rights battle was won, but for Martin it was the first of many more difficult ones. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. [324][325] The trip to India affected King, deepening his understanding of nonviolent resistance and his commitment to America's struggle for civil rights. Their father was involved in the local chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and had led a successful campaign for equal wages for white and Black Atlanta teachers.

King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, inspired by his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi. King Sr. was inspired by Martin Luther's courage of confronting institutionalized evil. "[200] King also criticized American opposition to North Vietnam's land reforms. It was here that King made his famous "I Have a Dream" speech, emphasizing his belief that someday all men could be brothers, "I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character." [119] Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founder Ella Baker regarded King as a charismatic media figure who lost touch with the grassroots of the movement[120] as he became close to elite figures like Nelson Rockefeller.

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